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സ്ത്രീകള്‍ എങ്ങിനെ വസ്ത്രം ധരിക്കണം എന്ന് പുരുഷന്‍ നിഷ്ക്കര്‍ഷിക്കുന്നത് ശരിയോ? അല്ലെങ്കില്‍ തിരിച്ചും?

Showing posts with label IPO. Show all posts
Showing posts with label IPO. Show all posts

Tuesday, September 27, 2016

Counting of Training period for IPO Examination - Clarification



Whether training period counted for IPO examination?

Answer is YES.


Government of India’s Orders No. 16 below FR. 9(6) reads:

Period of training before appointment to be treated as ‘duty’ for eligibility to sit for departmental examinations:

       It has been decided that in all cases where pre-service training is considered necessary before actual appointment to the post, the period spent by an officer on training immediately before such appointment would count as qualifying service for the purpose of eligibility for appearing in Departmental examinations, even if the officer is not given the scale of pay of the post but only a nominal allowance.

     Hence the candidates are requested to submit their application before the last date (30.09.2016) mentioning the period of training in the application form. 

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Monday, January 26, 2015

The Indian Evidence Act, 1872 for IPO +++


1. Short title, extent and commencement.—This Act may be called the Indian Evidence Act, 1872. tc "1. Short title, extent and commencement.—This Act may be called the Indian Evidence Act, 1872." It extends to the whole of India 1[except the State of Jammu and Kashmir] and applies to all judicial proceedings in or before any Court, including Courts-martial, 2[other than Courts-martial convened under the Army Act] (44 & 45 Vict., c. 58) 3[the Naval Discipline Act (29 & 30 Vict., c. 109) or 4[***] the Indian Navy (Discipline) Act, 1934 (34 of 1934)5 6[or the Air Force Act] (7 Geo. 5, c. 51) but not to affidavits 7presented to any Court or Officer, nor to proceedings before an arbitrator; tc "It extends to the whole of India 2[except the State of Jammu and Kashmir] and applies to all judicial proceedings in or before any Court, including Courts-martial, 3[other than Courts-martial convened under the Army Act] (44 & 45 Vict., c. 58) 4[the Naval Discipline Act (29 & 30 Vict., c. 109) or 5[***] the Indian Navy (Discipline) Act, 1934 (34 of 1934)6 7[or the Air Force Act] (7 Geo. 5, c. 51) but not to affidavits 8presented to any Court or Officer, nor to proceedings before an arbitrator;" and it shall come into force on the first day of September, 1872. tc "and it shall come into force on the first day of September, 1872."


5. Evidence may be given of facts in issue and relevant facts.—Evidence may be given in any suit or proceedings of the existence or non-existence of every fact in issue and of such other facts as are hereinafter declared to be relevant, and of no others. tc "5. Evidence may be given of facts in issue and relevant facts.—Evidence may be given in any suit or proceedings of the existence or non-existence of every fact in issue and of such other facts as are hereinafter declared to be relevant, and of no others." Explanation.—This section shall not enable any person to give evidence of a fact which he is disentitled to prove by any provision of the law for the time being in force relating to Civil Procedure1. tc "Explanation.—This section shall not enable any person to give evidence of a fact which he is disentitled to prove by any provision of the law for the time being in force relating to Civil Procedure1." Illustrations
(a) A is tried for the murder of B by beating him with a club with the intention of causing his death. At A’s trial the following facts are in issue:— A’s beating B with the club; A’s causing B’s death by such beating; A’s intention to cause B’s death.
(b) A suitor does not bring with him, and have in readiness for production at the first hearing of the case, a bond on which he relies. This section does not enable him to produce the bond or prove its contents at a subsequent stage of the proceedings, otherwise than in accordance with the conditions prescribed by the Code of Civil Procedure.
6. Relevancy of facts forming part of same transaction.—Facts which, though not in issue, are so connected with a fact in issue as to form part of the same transaction, are relevant, whether they occurred at the same time and place or at different times and places. tc "6. Relevancy of facts forming part of same transaction.—Facts which, though not in issue, are so connected with a fact in issue as to form part of the same transaction, are relevant, whether they occurred at the same time and place or at different times and places." Illustrations
(a) A is accused of the murder of B by beating him. Whatever was said or done by A or B or the by-standers at the beating, or so shortly before or after it as to form part of the transaction, is a relevant fact.
(b) A is accused of waging war against the 1[Government of India] by taking part in an armed insurrection in which property is destroyed, troops are attacked, and goals are broken open. The occurrence of these facts is relevant, as forming part of the general transaction, though A may not have been present at all of them.
(c) A sues B for a libel contained in a letter forming part of a correspondence. Letters between the parties relating to the subject out of which the libel arose, and forming part of the correspondence in which it is contained, are relevant facts, though they do not contain the libel itself.
(d) The question is, whether certain goods ordered from B were delivered to A. The goods were delivered to several intermediate persons successively. Each delivery is a relevant fact.
7. Facts which are the occasion, cause or effect of facts in issue.—Facts which are the occasion, cause, or effect, immediate or otherwise, of relevant facts, or facts in issue, or which constitute the state of things under which they happened, or which afforded an opportunity for their occurrence or transaction, are relevant. tc "7. Facts which are the occasion, cause or effect of facts in issue.—Facts which are the occasion, cause, or effect, immediate or otherwise, of relevant facts, or facts in issue, or which constitute the state of things under which they happened, or which afforded an opportunity for their occurrence or transaction, are relevant." Illustrations
(a) The question is, whether A robbed B. The facts that, shortly before the robbery, B went to a fair with money in his possession, and that he showed it, or mentioned the fact that he had it, to third persons, are relevant.
(b) The question is, whether A murdered B. Marks on the ground, produced by a struggle at or near the place where the murder was committed, are relevant facts.
(c) The question is, whether A poisoned B. The state of B’s health before the symptoms ascribed to poison, and habits of B, known to A, which afforded an opportunity for the administration of poison, are relevant facts.
8. Motive, preparation and previous or subsequent conduct.—Any fact is relevant which shows or constitutes a motive or preparation for any fact in issue or relevant fact. tc "8. Motive, preparation and previous or subsequent conduct.—Any fact is relevant which shows or constitutes a motive or preparation for any fact in issue or relevant fact." The conduct of any party, or of any agent to any party, to any suit or proceeding, in reference to such suit or proceeding, or in reference to any fact in issue therein or relevant thereto, and the conduct of any person an offence against whom is the subject of any proceeding, is relevant, if such conduct influences or is influenced by any fact in issue or relevant fact, and whether it was previous or subsequent thereto. tc "The conduct of any party, or of any agent to any party, to any suit or proceeding, in reference to such suit or proceeding, or in reference to any fact in issue therein or relevant thereto, and the conduct of any person an offence against whom is the subject of any proceeding, is relevant, if such conduct influences or is influenced by any fact in issue or relevant fact, and whether it was previous or subsequent thereto." Explanation 1.—The word “conduct” in this section does not include statements, unless those statements accompany and explain acts other than statements; but this explanation is not to affect the relevancy of statements under any other section of this Act. tc "Explanation 1.—The word “conduct” in this section does not include statements, unless those statements accompany and explain acts other than statements; but this explanation is not to affect the relevancy of statements under any other section of this Act." Explanation 2.—When the conduct of any person is relevant, any statement made to him or in his presence and hearing, which affects such conduct, is relevant. tc "Explanation 2.—When the conduct of any person is relevant, any statement made to him or in his presence and hearing, which affects such conduct, is relevant." Illustrations
(a) A is tried for the murder of B. The facts that A murdered C, that B knew that A had murdered C, and that B had tried to extort money from A by threatening to make his knowledge public, are relevant.
(b) A sues B upon a bond for the payment of money. B denies the making of the bond. The fact that, at the time when the bond was alleged to be made, B required money for a particular purpose is relevant.
(c) A is tried for the murder of B by poison. The fact that, before the death of B, A procured poison similar to that which was administered to B, is relevant.
(d) The question is, whether a certain document is the Will of A. The facts that, not long before the date of the alleged Will, A made inquiry into matters to which the provisions of the alleged Will relate, that he consulted vakils in reference to making the Will, and that he caused drafts or other Wills to be prepared of which he did not approve, are relevant.
(e) A is accused of a crime. The facts that, either before or at the time of, or after the alleged crime, A provided evidence which would tend to give to the facts of the case an appearance favourable to himself, or that he destroyed or concealed evidence, or prevented the presence or procured the absence of persons who might have been witnesses, or suborned persons to give false evidence respecting it, are relevant.
(f) The question is, whether A robbed B. The facts that, after B was robbed, C said in A’s presence—"the police are coming to look for the man who robbed B”, and that immediately afterwards A ran away, are relevant.
(g) The question is, whether A owes B rupees 10,000. The facts that A asked C to lend him money, and that D said to C in A’s presence and hearing—“I advise you not to trust A, for he owes B 10,000 Rupees”, and that A went away without making any answer, are relevant facts.
(h) The question is, whether A committed a crime. The fact that A absconded after receiving a letter warning him that inquiry was being made for the criminal and the contents of the letter, are relevant.
(i) A is accused of a crime. The facts that, after the commission of the alleged crime, he absconded, or was in possession of property or the proceeds of property acquired by the crime, or attempted to conceal things which were or might have been used in committing it, are relevant.
(j) The question is, whether A was ravished. The facts that, shortly after the alleged rape, she made a complaint relating to the crime, the circumstances under which, and the terms in which, the complaint was made, are relevant. The fact that, without making a complaint, she said that she had been ravished is not relevant as conduct under this section, though it may be relevant as a dying declaration under section 32, clause (1), or as corroborative evidence under section 157.
(k) The question is, whether A was robbed. tc "(k) The question is, whether A was robbed." The fact that, soon after the alleged robbery, he made a complaint relating to the offence, the circumstances under which, and the terms in which, the complaint was made, are relevant. The fact that he said he had been robbed, without making any complaint, is not relevant, …
56. Fact judicially noticeable need not be proved.—No fact of which the Court will take judicial notice need to be proved. tc "56. Fact judicially noticeable need not be proved.—No fact of which the Court will take judicial notice need to be proved."
57. Facts of which Court must take judicial notice.—The Court shall take judicial notice of the following facts:— 1[
(1) All laws in force in the territory of India;]
(2) All public Acts passed or hereafter to be passed by Parliament 2[of the United Kingdom], and all local and personal Acts directed by Parliament 2[of the United Kingdom] to be judicially noticed;
(3) Articles of War for 3[the Indian] Army, 4[Navy or Air Force]; 5[(4) The course of proceeding of Parliament of the United Kingdom, of the Constituent Assembly of India, of Parliament and of the legislatures established under any law for the time being in force in a Province or in the State;]
(5) The accession and the sign manual of the Sovereign for the time being of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland;
(6) All seals of which English Courts take judicial notice: the seals of all the 6[Courts in 7[India]], and all Courts out of 5[India] established by the authority of 8[the Central Government or the Crown Representative]: the seals of Courts of Admiralty and Maritime Jurisdiction and of Notaries Public, and all seals which any person is authorized to use by 9[the Constitution or an Act of Parliament of the United Kingdom or an] Act or Regulation having the force of law in 7[India];
(7) The accession to office, names, titles, functions, and signatures of the persons filling for the time being any public office in any State, if the fact of their appointment to such office is notified in 10[any Official Gazette];
(8) The existence, title and national flag of every State or Sovereign recognized by 11[the Government of India];
(9) The divisions of time, the geographical divisions of the world, and public festivals, fasts and holidays notified in the Official Gazette;
(10) The territories under the dominion of 11[the Government of India];
(11) The commencement, continuance, and termination of hostilities between 11[the Government of India] and any other State or body of persons;
(12) The names of the members and officers of the Court and of their deputies and subordinate officers and assistants, and also of all officers acting in execution of its process, and of all advocates, attorneys, proctors, vakils, pleaders and other persons authorized by law to appear or act before it;
(13) The rule of the road, 12[on land or at sea]. In all these cases, and also on all matters of public history, literature, science or art, the Court may resort for its aid to appropriate books or documents of reference. If the Court is called upon by any person to take judicial notice of any fact, it may refuse to do so, unless and until such person produces any such book or document as it may consider necessary to enable it to do so.
58 Facts admitted need not be proved. —No fact need to be proved in any proceeding which the parties thereto or their agents agree to admit at the hearing, or which, before the hearing, they agree to admit by any writing under their hands, or which by any rule of pleading in force at the time they are deemed to have admitted by their pleadings: Provided that the Court may, in its discretion, require the facts admitted to be proved otherwise than by such admissions.
59. Proof of facts by oral evidence.—All facts, except the 1[contents of documents or electronic records], may be proved by oral evidence. tc "59. Proof of facts by oral evidence.—All facts, except the 1[contents of documents or electronic records], may be proved by oral evidence."
60. Oral evidence must be direct.—Oral evidence must, in all cases whatever, be direct; that is to say— tc "60. Oral evidence must be direct.—Oral evidence must, in all cases whatever, be direct; that is to say—" If it refers to a fact which could be seen, it must be the evidence of a witness who says he saw it; tc" If it refers to a fact which could be seen, it must be the evidence of a witness who says he saw it;" If it refers to a fact which could be heard, it must be the evidence of a witness who says he heard it; tc" If it refers to a fact which could be heard, it must be the evidence of a witness who says he heard it;" If it refers to a fact which could be perceived by any other sense or in any other manner, it must be the evidence of a witness who says he perceived it by that sense or in that manner; tc" If it refers to a fact which could be perceived by any other sense or in any other manner, it must be the evidence of a witness who says he perceived it by that sense or in that manner;" If it refers to an opinion or to the grounds on which that opinion is held, it must be the evidence of the person who holds that opinion on those grounds: tc" If it refers to an opinion or to the grounds on which that opinion is held, it must be the evidence of the person who holds that opinion on those grounds\:" Provided that the opinions of experts expressed in any treatise commonly offered for sale, and the grounds on which such opinions are held, may be proved by the production of such treatises if the author is dead or cannot be found, or has become incapable of giving evidence, or cannot be called as a witness without an amount of delay or expense which the Court regards as unreasonable: tc "Provided that the opinions of experts expressed in any treatise commonly offered for sale, and the grounds on which such opinions are held, may be proved by the production of such treatises if the author is dead or cannot be found, or has become incapable of giving evidence, or cannot be called as a witness without an amount of delay or expense which the Court regards as unreasonable\:" Provided also that, if oral evidence refers to the existence or condition of any material thing other than a document, the Court may, if it thinks fit, require the production of such material thing for its inspection.
61. Proof of contents of documents.—The contents of documents may be proved either by primary or by secondary evidence. tc "61. Proof of contents of documents.—The contents of documents may be proved either by primary or by secondary evidence."
62. Primary evidence.—Primary evidence means the document itself produced for the inspection of the Court. tc "62. Primary evidence.—Primary evidence means the document itself produced for the inspection of the Court." Explanation 1.—Where a document is executed in several parts, each part is primary evidence of the document; tc "Explanation 1.—Where a document is executed in several parts, each part is primary evidence of the document;" Where a document is executed in counterpart, each counterpart being executed by one or some of the parties only, each counterpart is primary evidence as against the parties executing it. tc "Where a document is executed in counterpart, each counterpart being executed by one or some of the parties only, each counterpart is primary evidence as against the parties executing it." Explanation 2.—Where a number of documents are all made by one uniform process, as in the case of printing, lithography, or photography, each is primary evidence of the contents of the rest; but, where they are all copies of a common original, they are not primary evidence of the contents of the original. tc "Explanation 2.—Where a number of documents are all made by one uniform process, as in the case of printing, lithography, or photography, each is primary evidence of the contents of the rest; but, where they are all copies of a common original, they are not primary evidence of the contents of the original." Illustration A person is shown to have been in possession of a number of placards, all printed at one time from one original. Any one of the placards is primary evidence of the contents of any other, but no one of them is primary evidence of the contents of the original.
63. Secondary evidence.—Secondary evidence means and includes— tc "63. Secondary evidence.—Secondary evidence means and includes—"
(1) Certified copies given under the provisions hereinafter contained1; tc" (1) Certified copies given under the provisions hereinafter contained1;"
(2) Copies made from the original by mechanical processes which in themselves insure the accuracy of the copy, and copies compared with such copies; tc" (2) Copies made from the original by mechanical processes which in themselves insure the accuracy of the copy, and copies compared with such copies;"
(3) Copies made from or compared with the original; tc" (3) Copies made from or compared with the original;"
(4) Counterparts of documents as against the parties who did not execute them; tc" (4) Counterparts of documents as against the parties who did not execute them;"
(5) Oral accounts of the contents of a document given by some person who has himself seen it. tc" (5) Oral accounts of the contents of a document given by some person who has himself seen it." Illustrations
(a) A photograph of an original is secondary evidence of its contents, though the two have not been compared, if it is proved that the thing photographed was the original.
(b) A copy compared with a copy of a letter made by a copying machine is secondary evidence of the contents of the letter, if it is shown that the copy made by the copying machine was made from the original.
(c) A copy transcribed from a copy, but afterwards compared with the original, is secondary evidence; but the copy not so compared is not secondary evidence of the original, although the copy from which it was transcribed was compared with the original.
(d) Neither an oral account of a copy compared with the original, nor an oral account of a photograph or machine-copy of the original, is secondary evidence of the original. COMMENTS tc "COMMENTS" Admissibility Application moved for permission to lead secondary evidence based on ground of loss of document. Presence of document proved from the facts pleaded - Allowing secondary evidence not illegal; Sobha Rani v. Ravikumar, AIR 1999 P&H 21. tc "Application moved for permission to lead secondary evidence based on ground of loss of document. Presence of document proved from the facts pleaded - Allowing secondary evidence not illegal; Sobha Rani v. Ravikumar, AIR 1999 P&H 21." Tape-recorded statements are admissible in evidence; K.S. Mohan v. Sandhya Mohan, AIR 1993 Mad 59. tc "Tape-recorded statements are admissible in evidence; K.S. Mohan v. Sandhya Mohan, AIR 1993 Mad 59." Certified copies of money lender’s licences are admissible in evidence; K. Shivalingaiah v. B.V. Chandrashekara Gowda, AIR 1993 Kant 29. tc "Certified copies of money lender’s licences are admissible in evidence; K. Shivalingaiah v. B.V. Chandrashekara Gowda, AIR 1993 Kant 29."
64. Proof of documents by primary evidence.—Documents must be proved by primary evidence except in the cases hereinafter mentioned. tc "64. Proof of documents by primary evidence.—Documents must be proved by primary evidence except in the cases hereinafter mentioned."
65. Cases in which secondary evidence relating to documents may be given.—Secondary evidence may be given of the existence, condition, or contents of a document in the following cases:— tc "65. Cases in which secondary evidence relating to documents may be given.—Secondary evidence may be given of the existence, condition, or contents of a document in the following cases\:—"
(a) When the original is shown or appears to be in the possession or power— tc" (a) When the original is shown or appears to be in the possession or power—" of the person against whom the document is sought to be proved, or tc" of the person against whom the document is sought to be proved, or" of any person out of reach of, or not subject to, the process of the Court, or tc" of any person out of reach of, or not subject to, the process of the Court, or" of any person legally bound to produce it, tc" of any person legally bound to produce it," and when, after the notice mentioned in section 66, such person does not produce it; tc" and when, after the notice mentioned in section 66, such person does not produce it;"
(b) when the existence, condition or contents of the original have been proved to be admitted in writing by the person against whom it is proved or by his representative in interest; tc" (b) when the existence, condition or contents of the original have been proved to be admitted in writing by the person against whom it is proved or by his representative in interest;"
(c) when the original has been destroyed or lost, or when the party offering evidence of its contents cannot, for any other reason not arising from his own default or neglect, produce it in reasonable time; tc" (c) when the original has been destroyed or lost, or when the party offering evidence of its contents cannot, for any other reason not arising from his own default or neglect, produce it in reasonable time;"
(d) when the original is of such a nature as not to be easily movable; tc" (d) when the original is of such a nature as not to be easily movable;"
(e) when the original is a public document within the meaning of section 74;
(f) when the original is a document of which a certified copy is permitted by this Act, or by any other law in force in 1[India] to be given in evidence2; tc" (f) when the original is a document of which a certified copy is permitted by this Act, or by any other law in force in 1[India] to be given in evidence2;"
(g) when the originals consists of numerous accounts or other documents which cannot conveniently be examined in Court, and the fact to be proved is the general result of the whole collection. tc" (g) when the originals consists of numerous accounts or other documents which cannot conveniently be examined in Court, and the fact to be proved is the general result of the whole collection." In cases (a), (c) and (d), any secondary evidence of the contents of the document is admissible. tc "In cases (a), (c) and (d), any secondary evidence of the contents of the document is admissible." In case (b), the written admission is admissible. tc "In case (b), the written admission is admissible." In case (e) or (f), a certified copy of the document, but no other kind of secondary evidence, is admissible. tc "In case (e) or (f), a certified copy of the document, but no other kind of secondary evidence, is admissible." In case (g), evidence may be given as to the general result of the documents by any person who has examined them, and who is skilled in the examination of such documents. tc "In case (g), evidence may be given as to the general result of the documents by any person who has examined them, and who is skilled in the examination of such documents."
1[65A. Special provisions as to evidence relating to electronic record.—The contents of electronic records may be proved in accordance with the provisions of section 65B.]
1[65B. Admissibility of electronic records.—
(1) Notwithstanding anything contained in this Act, any information contained in an electronic record which is printed on a paper, stored, recorded or copied in optical or magnetic media produced by a computer (hereinafter referred to as the computer output) shall be deemed to be also a document, if the conditions mentioned in this section are satisfied in relation to the information and computer in question and shall be admissible in any proceedings, without further proof or production of the original, as evidence of any contents of the original or of any fact stated therein of which direct evidence would be admissible. tc "65B. Admissibility of electronic records.—(1) Notwithstanding anything contained in this Act, any information contained in an electronic record which is printed on a paper, stored, recorded or copied in optical or magnetic media produced by a computer (hereinafter referred to as the computer output) shall be deemed to be also a document, if the conditions mentioned in this section are satisfied in relation to the information and computer in question and shall be admissible in any proceedings, without further proof or production of the original, as evidence of any contents of the original or of any fact stated therein of which direct evidence would be admissible."
(2) The conditions referred to in sub-section (1) in respect of a computer output shall be the following, namely:— tc "(2) The conditions referred to in sub-section (1) in respect of a computer output shall be the following, namely\:—"
(a) the computer output containing the information was produced by the computer during the period over which the computer was used regularly to store or process information for the purposes of any activities regularly carried on over that period by the person having lawful control over the use of the computer; tc" (a) the computer output containing the information was produced by the computer during the period over which the computer was used regularly to store or process information for the purposes of any activities regularly carried on over that period by the person having lawful control over the use of the computer;"
(b) during the said period, information of the kind contained in the electronic record or of the kind from which the information so contained is derived was regularly fed into the computer in the ordinary course of the said activities; tc" (b) during the said period, information of the kind contained in the electronic record or of the kind from which the information so contained is derived was regularly fed into the computer in the ordinary course of the said activities;"
(c) throughout the material part of the said period, the computer was operating properly or, if not, then in respect of any period in which it was not operating properly or was out of operation during that part of the period, was not such as to affect the electronic record or the accuracy of its contents; and tc" (c) throughout the material part of the said period, the computer was operating properly or, if not, then in respect of any period in which it was not operating properly or was out of operation during that part of the period, was not such as to affect the electronic record or the accuracy of its contents; and"
(d) the information contained in the electronic record reproduces or is derived from such information fed into the computer in the ordinary course of the said activities. tc" (d) the information contained in the electronic record reproduces or is derived from such information fed into the computer in the ordinary course of the said activities."
(3) Where over any period, the function of storing or processing information for the purposes of any activities regularly carried on over that period as mentioned in clause (a) of sub-section (2) was regularly performed by computers, whether— tc "(3) Where over any period, the function of storing or processing information for the purposes of any activities regularly carried on over that period as mentioned in clause (a) of sub-section (2) was regularly performed by computers, whether—"
(a) by a combination of computers operating over that period; or tc" (a) by a combination of computers operating over that period; or"
(b) by different computers operating in succession over that period; or tc" (b) by different computers operating in succession over that period; or"
(c) by different combinations of computers operating in succession over that period; or tc" (c) by different combinations of computers operating in succession over that period; or"
(d) in any other manner involving the successive operation over that period, in whatever order, of one or more computers and one or more combinations of computers, tc" (d) in any other manner involving the successive operation over that period, in whatever order, of one or more computers and one or more combinations of computers," all the computers used for that purpose during that period shall be treated for the purposes of this section as constituting a single computer; and references in this section to a computer shall be construed accordingly. tc "all the computers used for that purpose during that period shall be treated for the purposes of this section as constituting a single computer; and references in this section to a computer shall be construed accordingly."
(4) In any proceedings where it is desired to give a statement in evidence by virtue of this section, a certificate doing any of the following things, that is to say,— tc "(4) In any proceedings where it is desired to give a statement in evidence by virtue of this section, a certificate doing any of the following things, that is to say,—"
(a) identifying the electronic record containing the statement and describing the manner in which it was produced; tc" (a) identifying the electronic record containing the statement and describing the manner in which it was produced;"
(b) giving such particulars of any device involved in the production of that electronic record as may be appropriate for the purpose of showing that the electronic record was produced by a computer; tc" (b) giving such particulars of any device involved in the production of that electronic record as may be appropriate for the purpose of showing that the electronic record was produced by a computer;"
(c) dealing with any of the matters to which the conditions mentioned in sub-section (2) relate, tc" (c) dealing with any of the matters to which the conditions mentioned in sub-section (2) relate," and purporting to be signed by a person occupying a responsible official position in relation to the operation of the relevant device or the management of the relevant activities (whichever is appropriate) shall be evidence of any matter stated in the certificate; and for the purposes of this sub-section it shall be sufficient for a matter to be stated to the best of the knowledge and belief of the person stating it. tc "and purporting to be signed by a person occupying a responsible official position in relation to the operation of the relevant device or the management of the relevant activities (whichever is appropriate) shall be evidence of any matter stated in the certificate; and for the purposes of this sub-section it shall be sufficient for a matter to be stated to the best of the knowledge and belief of the person stating it."
(5) For the purposes of this section,— tc "(5) For the purposes of this section,—"
(a) infomation shall be taken to be supplied to a computer if it is supplied thereto in any appropriate form and whether it is so supplied directly or (with or without human intervention) by means of any appropriate equipment; tc" (a) infomation shall be taken to be supplied to a computer if it is supplied thereto in any appropriate form and whether it is so supplied directly or (with or without human intervention) by means of any appropriate equipment;"
(b) whether in the course of activities carried on by any official information is supplied with a view to its being stored or processed for the purposes of those activities by a computer operated otherwise than in the course of those activities, that information, if duly supplied to that computer, shall be taken to be supplied to it in the course of those activities; tc" (b) whether in the course of activities carried on by any official information is supplied with a view to its being stored or processed for the purposes of those activities by a computer operated otherwise than in the course of those activities, that information, if duly supplied to that computer, shall be taken to be supplied to it in the course of those activities;"
(c) a computer output shall be taken to have been produced by a computer whether it was produced by it directly or (with or without human intervention) by means of any appropriate equipment. Explanation.—For the purposes of this section any reference to information being derived from other information shall be a reference to its being derived therefrom by calculation, comparison or any other process.]
66. Rules as to notice to produce.—Secondary evidence of the contents of the documents referred to in section 65, clause
(a) , shall not be given unless the party proposing to give such secondary evidence has previously given to the party in whose possession or power the document is, 1[or to his attorney or pleader,] such notice to produce it as is prescribed by law; and if no notice is prescribed by law, then such notice as the Court considers reasonable under the circumstances of the case: tc "66. Rules as to notice to produce.—Secondary evidence of the contents of the documents referred to in section 65, clause (a), shall not be given unless the party proposing to give such secondary evidence has previously given to the party in whose possession or power the document is, 1[or to his attorney or pleader,] such notice to produce it as is prescribed by law; and if no notice is prescribed by law, then such notice as the Court considers reasonable under the circumstances of the case\:" Provided that such notice shall not be required in order to render secondary evidence admissible in any of the following cases, or in any other case in which the Court thinks fit to dispense with it:— tc "Provided that such notice shall not be required in order to render secondary evidence admissible in any of the following cases, or in any other case in which the Court thinks fit to dispense with it\:—"
(1) when the document to be proved is itself a notice; tc" (1) when the document to be proved is itself a notice;"
(2) when, from the nature of the case, the adverse party must know that he will be required to produce it; tc" (2) when, from the nature of the case, the adverse party must know that he will be required to produce it;"
(3) when it appears or is proved that the adverse party has obtained possession of the original by fraud or force; tc" (3) when it appears or is proved that the adverse party has obtained possession of the original by fraud or force;"
(4) when the adverse party or his agent has the original in Court; tc" (4) when the adverse party or his agent has the original in Court;"
(5) when the adverse party or his agent has admitted the loss of the document;
(6) when the person in possession of the document is out of reach of, or not subject to, the process of the Court. tc" (6) when the person in possession of the document is out of reach of, or not subject to, the process of the Court."
67. Proof of signature and handwriting of person alleged to have signed or written document produced.—If a document is alleged to be signed or to have been written wholly or in part by any person, the signature or the handwriting of so much of the document as is alleged to be in that person’s handwriting must be proved to be in his handwriting.
68. Proof of execution of document required by law to be attested.—If a document is required by law to be attested, it shall not be used as evidence until one attesting witness at least has been called for the purpose of proving its execution, if there be an attesting witness alive, and subject to the process of the Court and capable of giving evidence: 1[Provided that it shall not be necessary to call an attesting witness in proof of the execution of any document, not being a Will, which has been registered in accordance with the provisions of the Indian Registration Act, 1908 (16 of 1908), unless its execution by the person by whom it purports to have been executed is specifically denied.]
69. Proof where no attesting witness found.—If no such attesting witness can be found, or if the document purports to have been executed in the United Kingdom, it must be proved that the attestation of one attesting witness at least is in his handwriting, and that the signature of the person executing the document is in the handwriting of that person. tc "69. Proof where no attesting witness found.—If no such attesting witness can be found, or if the document purports to have been executed in the United Kingdom, it must be proved that the attestation of one attesting witness at least is in his handwriting, and that the signature of the person executing the document is in the handwriting of that person."
70. Admission of execution by party to attested document.—The admission of a party to an attested document of its execution by himself shall be sufficient proof of its execution as against him, though it be a document required by law to be attested. tc "70. Admission of execution by party to attested document.—The admission of a party to an attested document of its execution by himself shall be sufficient proof of its execution as against him, though it be a document required by law to be attested."
71. Proof when attesting witness denies the execution.—If the attesting witness denies or does not recollect the execution of the document, its execution may be proved by other evidence. tc "71. Proof when attesting witness denies the execution.—If the attesting witness denies or does not recollect the execution of the document, its execution may be proved by other evidence."
72. Proof of document not required by law to be attested.—An attested document not required by law to be attested may be proved as if it was unattested. tc "72. Proof of document not required by law to be attested.—An attested document not required by law to be attested may be proved as if it was unattested."
73. Comparison of signature, writing or seal with others admitted or proved.—In order to ascertain whether a signature, writing or seal is that of the person by whom it purports to have been written or made, any signature, writing, or seal admitted or proved to the satisfaction of the Court to have been written or made by that person may be compared with the one which is to be proved, although that signature, writing, or seal has not been produced or proved for any other purpose. The Court may direct any person present in Court to write any words or figures for the purpose of enabling the Court to compare the words or figures so written with any words or figures alleged to have been written by such person. 1[This section applies also, with any necessary modifications, to finger-impressions.]
1[73A. Proof as to verification of digital signature.—In order to ascertain whether a digital signature is that of the person by whom it purports to have been affixed, the Court may direct— tc "2[73A. Proof as to verification of digital signature.—In order to ascertain whether a digital signature is that of the person by whom it purports to have been affixed, the Court may direct—"
(a) that person or the Controller or the Certifying Authority to produce the Digital Signature Certificate; tc" (a) that person or the Controller or the Certifying Authority to produce the Digital Signature Certificate;"
(b) any other person to apply the public key listed in the Digital Signature Certificate and verify the digital signature purported to have been affixed by that person. tc" (b) any other person to apply the public key listed in the Digital Signature Certificate and verify the digital signature purported to have been affixed by that person." Explanation.—For the purposes of this section, “Controller” means the Controller appointed under sub-section (1) of section 17 of the Information Technology Act, 2000.] tc "Explanation.—For the purposes of this section, “Controller” means the Controller appointed under sub-section (1) of section 17 of the Information Technology Act, 2000.]"
74. Public documents.—The following documents are public documents :— tc "74. Public documents.—The following documents are public documents \:—"
(1) Documents forming the acts, or records of the acts— tc "(1) Documents forming the acts, or records of the acts—"
(i) of the sovereign authority, tc" (i) of the sovereign authority,"
(ii) of official bodies and tribunals, and tc" (ii) of official bodies and tribunals, and"
(iii) of public officers, legislative, judicial and executive, 1[of any part of India or of the Commonwealth], or of a foreign country; tc" (iii) of public officers, legislative, judicial and executive, 1[of any part of India or of the Commonwealth], or of a foreign country;"
(2) Public records kept 2[in any State] of private documents. tc "(2) Public records kept 2[in any State] of private documents."
75. Private documents.—All other documents are private. tc "75. Private documents.—All other documents are private."
76. Certified copies of public documents.—Every 1public officer having the custody of a public document, which any person has a right to inspect, shall give that person on demand a copy of it on payment of the legal fees therefor, together with a certificate written at the foot of such copy that it is a true copy of such document or part thereof, as the case may be, and such certificate shall be dated and subscribed by such officer with his name and his official title, and shall be sealed, whenever such officer is authorized by law to make use of a seal; and such copies so certified shall be called certified copies. tc "76. Certified copies of public documents.—Every 3public officer having the custody of a public document, which any person has a right to inspect, shall give that person on demand a copy of it on payment of the legal fees therefor, together with a certificate written at the foot of such copy that it is a true copy of such document or part thereof, as the case may be, and such certificate shall be dated and subscribed by such officer with his name and his official title, and shall be sealed, whenever such officer is authorized by law to make use of a seal; and such copies so certified shall be called certified copies." Explanation.—Any officer who, by the ordinary course of official duty, is authorized to deliver such copies, shall be deemed to have the custody of such documents within the meaning of this section. tc "Explanation.—Any officer who, by the ordinary course of official duty, is authorized to deliver such copies, shall be deemed to have the custody of such documents within the meaning of this section."
77. Proof of documents by production of certified copies.—Such certified copies may be produced in proof of the contents of the public documents or parts of the public documents of which they purport to be copies. tc "77. Proof of documents by production of certified copies.—Such certified copies may be produced in proof of the contents of the public documents or parts of the public documents of which they purport to be copies."
78. Proof of other official documents.—The following public documents may be proved as follows:— tc "78. Proof of other official documents.—The following public documents may be proved as follows\:—"
(1) Acts, orders or notifications of 1[the Central Government] in any of its departments, 2[or of the Crown Representative] or of any State Government or any department of any State Government,— tc" (1) Acts, orders or notifications of 4[the Central Government] in any of its departments, 5[or of the Crown Representative] or of any State Government or any department of any State Government,—" by the records of the departments, certified by the head of those departments respectively, tc" by the records of the departments, certified by the head of those departments respectively," or by any document purporting to be printed by order of any such Government 2[or, as the case may be, of the Crown Representative]; tc" or by any document purporting to be printed by order of any such Government 5[or, as the case may be, of the Crown Representative];"
(2) The proceedings of the Legislatures,— tc" (2) The proceedings of the Legislatures,—" by the journals of those bodies respectively, or by published Acts or abstracts, or by copies purporting to be printed 3[by order of the Government concerned]; tc" by the journals of those bodies respectively, or by published Acts or abstracts, or by copies purporting to be printed 6[by order of the Government concerned];"
(3) Proclamations, orders or regulations issued by 4[Her Majesty] or by the Privy Council, or by any department of 4[Her Majesty’s] Government,— tc" (3) Proclamations, orders or regulations issued by 7[Her Majesty] or by the Privy Council, or by any department of 7[Her Majesty’s] Government,—" by copies or extracts contained in the London Gazette, or purporting to be printed by the Queen’s printer; tc" by copies or extracts contained in the London Gazette, or purporting to be printed by the Queen’s printer;"
(4) The acts of the Executive or the proceedings of the Legislature of a foreign country,— tc" (4) The acts of the Executive or the proceedings of the Legislature of a foreign country,—" by journals published by their authority, or commonly received in that country as such, or by a copy certified under the seal of the country or sovereign, or by a recognition thereof in some 5[Central Act]; tc" by journals published by their authority, or commonly received in that country as such, or by a copy certified under the seal of the country or sovereign, or by a recognition thereof in some 1[Central Act];"
(5) The proceedings of a municipal body in 6[a State], tc" (5) The proceedings of a municipal body in 2[a State]," by a copy of such proceedings, certified by the legal keeper thereof, or by a printed book purporting to be published by the authority of such body; tc" by a copy of such proceedings, certified by the legal keeper thereof, or by a printed book purporting to be published by the authority of such body;"
(6) Public documents of any other class in a foreign country,— tc" (6) Public documents of any other class in a foreign country,—" by the original, or by a copy certified by the legal keeper thereof, with a certificate under the seal of a Notary Public, or of 7[an Indian Consul] or diplomatic agent, that the copy is duly certified by the officer having the legal custody of the original, and upon proof of the character of the document according to the law of the foreign country. tc" by the original, or by a copy certified by the legal keeper thereof, with a certificate under the seal of a Notary Public, or of 3[an Indian Consul] or diplomatic agent, that the copy is duly certified by the officer having the legal custody of the original, and upon proof of the character of the document according to the law of the foreign country." STATE AMENDMENT tc "STATE AMENDMENT" West Bengal.—After section 78, insert the following section, namely:— tc "West Bengal.—After section 78, insert the following section, namely\:—"
78A. Copies of public documents, to be as good as original documents in certain cases.—Notwithstanding anything contained in this Act or any other law for the time being in force, where any public documents concerning any areas within West Bengal have been kept in Pakistan, then copies of such public documents shall, on being authenticated in such manner as may be prescribed from time to time by the State Government by notification in the Official Gazette, be deemed to have taken the place of and to be, the original documents from which such copies were made and all references to the original documents shall be construed as including references to such copies." tc" 78A. Copies of public documents, to be as good as original documents in certain cases.—Notwithstanding anything contained in this Act or any other law for the time being in force, where any public documents concerning any areas within West Bengal have been kept in Pakistan, then copies of such public documents shall, on being authenticated in such manner as may be prescribed from time to time by the State Government by notification in the Official Gazette, be deemed to have taken the place of and to be, the original documents from which such copies were made and all references to the original documents shall be construed as including references to such copies.\"" [Vide West Bengal Act 29 of 1955, sec. 3 (w.e.f. 6-10-1955) as amended by West Bengal Act 20 of 1960, sec. 3 (w.e.f. 5-1-1961)].
79. Presumption as to genuineness of certified copies.—The Court shall presume 1[to be genuine] every document purporting to be a certificate, certified copy, or other document, which is by law declared to be admissible as evidence of any particular fact and which purports to be duly certified by any officer 2[of the Central Government or of a State Government, or by any officer 3[in the State of Jammu and Kashmir] who is duly authorized thereto by the Central Government]: Provided that such document is substantially in the form and purports to be executed in the manner directed by law in that behalf. tc "Provided that such document is substantially in the form and purports to be executed in the manner directed by law in that behalf." The Court shall also presume that any officer by whom any such document purports to be signed or certified held, when he signed it, the official character which he claims in such paper. tc "The Court shall also presume that any officer by whom any such document purports to be signed or certified held, when he signed it, the official character which he claims in such paper."
80. Presumption as to documents produced as record of evidence.—Whenever any document is produced before any Court, purporting to be a record or memorandum of the evidence, or of any part of the evidence, given by a witness in a judicial proceeding or before any officer authorized by law to take such evidence, or to be a statement or confession by any prisoner or accused person, taken in accordance with law, and purporting to be signed by any Judge or Magistrate, or by any such officer as aforesaid, the Court shall presume— that the document is genuine; that any statements as to the circumstances under which it was taken, purporting to be made by the person signing it, are true, and that such evidence, statement or confession was duly taken.
81. Presumption as to Gazettes, newspapers, private Acts of Parliament and other documents.—The Court shall presume the genuineness of every document purporting to be the London Gazette, or 1[any Official Gazette, or the Government Gazette] of any colony, dependency of possession of the British Crown, or to be a newspaper or journal, or to be a copy of a private Act of Parliament 2[of the United Kingdom] printed by the Queen’s Printer, and of every document purporting to be a document directed by any law to be kept by any person, if such document is kept substantially in the form required by law and is produced from proper custody.
1[81A. Presumption as to Gazettes in electronic forms.—The Court shall presume the genuineness of every electronic record purporting to be the Official Gazette or purporting to be electronic record directed by any law to be kept by any person, if such electronic record is kept substantially in the form required by law and is produced from proper custody.] tc "3[81A. Presumption as to Gazettes in electronic forms.—The Court shall presume the genuineness of every electronic record purporting to be the Official Gazette or purporting to be electronic record directed by any law to be kept by any person, if such electronic record is kept substantially in the form required by law and is produced from proper custody.]"
82. Presumption as to document admissible in England without proof of seal or signature.—When any document is produced before any Court, purporting to be a document which, by the law in force for the time being in England or Ireland, would be admissible in proof of any particular in any Court of Justice in England or Ireland, without proof of the seal or stamp or signature authenticating it, or of the judicial or official character claimed by the person by whom it purports to be signed, the Court shall presume that such seal, stamp or signature is genuine, and that the person signing it held, at the time when he signed it, the judicial or official character which he claims, tc "82. Presumption as to document admissible in England without proof of seal or signature.—When any document is produced before any Court, purporting to be a document which, by the law in force for the time being in England or Ireland, would be admissible in proof of any particular in any Court of Justice in England or Ireland, without proof of the seal or stamp or signature authenticating it, or of the judicial or official character claimed by the person by whom it purports to be signed, the Court shall presume that such seal, stamp or signature is genuine, and that the person signing it held, at the time when he signed it, the judicial or official character which he claims," and the document shall be admissible for the same purpose for which it would be admissible in England or Ireland. tc "and the document shall be admissible for the same purpose for which it would be admissible in England or Ireland."
83. Presumption as to maps or plans made by authority of Government.—The Court shall presume that maps or plans purporting to be made by the authority of 1[the Central Government or any State Government] were so made, and are accurate; but maps or plans made for the purposes of any cause must be proved to be accurate. tc "83. Presumption as to maps or plans made by authority of Government.—The Court shall presume that maps or plans purporting to be made by the authority of 4[the Central Government or any State Government] were so made, and are accurate; but maps or plans made for the purposes of any cause must be proved to be accurate."
84. Presumption as to collections of laws and reports of decisions.—The Court shall presume the genuineness of every book purporting to be printed or published under the authority of the Government of any country, and to contain any of the laws of that country, tc "84. Presumption as to collections of laws and reports of decisions.—The Court shall presume the genuineness of every book purporting to be printed or published under the authority of the Government of any country, and to contain any of the laws of that country," and of every book purporting to contain reports of decisions of the Courts of such country. tc "and of every book purporting to contain reports of decisions of the Courts of such country."
85. Presumption as to powers-of-attorney.—The Court shall presume that every document purporting to be a power-of-attorney, and to have been executed before, and authenticated by, a Notary Public, or any Court, Judge, Magistrate, 1[Indian] Consul or Vice-Consul, or representative 2[***] of the 3[Central Government], was so executed and authenticated.
86. Presumption as to certified copies of foreign judicial records.—The Court may presume that any document purporting to be a certified copy of any judicial record of 1[2[***] any country not forming part of India] or of Her Majesty’s dominions is genuine and accurate, if the document purports to be certified in any manner which is certified by any representative of 3[***] the 4[Central Government] 5[in or for] 6[such country] to be the manner commonly in use in 7[that country] for the certification of copies of judicial records. 8[An officer who, with respect to 9[***] any territory or place not forming part of 10[India or] Her Majesty’s dominions, is a Political Agent therefore, as defined in section 3, 11[clause (43)], of the General Clauses Act, 1897 (10 of 1897), shall, for the purposes of this section, be deemed to be a representative of the 12[Central Government] 13[in and for the country] comprising that territory or place].
87. Presumption as to books, maps and charts.—The Court may presume that any book to which it may refer for information on matters of public or general interest, and that any published map or chart, the statements of which are relevant facts and which is produced for its inspection, was written and published by the person and at the time and place, by whom or at which it purports to have been written or published. tc "87. Presumption as to books, maps and charts.—The Court may presume that any book to which it may refer for information on matters of public or general interest, and that any published map or chart, the statements of which are relevant facts and which is produced for its inspection, was written and published by the person and at the time and place, by whom or at which it purports to have been written or published."
88. Presumption as to telegraphic messages.—The Court may presume that a message, forwarded from a telegraph office to the person to whom such message purports to be addressed, corresponds with a message delivered for transmission at the office from which the message purports to be sent; but the Court shall not make any presumption as to the person by whom such message was delivered for transmission. tc "88. Presumption as to telegraphic messages.—The Court may presume that a message, forwarded from a telegraph office to the person to whom such message purports to be addressed, corresponds with a message delivered for transmission at the office from which the message purports to be sent; but the Court shall not make any presumption as to the person by whom such message was delivered for transmission."
1[88A. Presumption as to electronic messages.—The Court may presume that an electronic message, forwarded by the originator through an electronic mail server to the addressee to whom the message purports to be addressed corresponds with the message as fed into his computer for transmission; but the Court shall not make any presumption as to the person by whom such message was sent. tc "3[88A. Presumption as to electronic messages.—The Court may presume that an electronic message, forwarded by the originator through an electronic mail server to the addressee to whom the message purports to be addressed corresponds with the message as fed into his computer for transmission; but the Court shall not make any presumption as to the person by whom such message was sent." Explanation.—For the purposes of this section, the expressions “addressee” and “originator” shall have the same meanings respectively assigned to them in clauses (b) and (za) of sub-section
(1) of section 2 of the Information Technology Act, 2000.] tc "Explanation.—For the purposes of this section, the expressions “addressee” and “originator” shall have the same meanings respectively assigned to them in clauses (b) and (za) of sub-section (1) of section 2 of the Information Technology Act, 2000.]"
89. Presumption as to due execution, etc., of documents not produced.—The Court shall presume that every document, called for and not produced after notice to produce, was attested, stamped and executed in the manner required by law. tc "89. Presumption as to due execution, etc., of documents not produced.—The Court shall presume that every document, called for and not produced after notice to produce, was attested, stamped and executed in the manner required by law."
90. Presumption as to documents thirty years old.—Where any document, purporting or proved to be thirty years old, is produced from any custody which the Court in the particular case considers proper, the Court may presume that the signature and every other part of such document, which purports to be in the handwriting of any particular person, is in that person’s handwriting, and, in the case of a document executed or attested, that it was duly executed and attested by the persons by whom it purports to be executed and attested. tc "90. Presumption as to documents thirty years old.—Where any document, purporting or proved to be thirty years old, is produced from any custody which the Court in the particular case considers proper, the Court may presume that the signature and every other part of such document, which purports to be in the handwriting of any particular person, is in that person’s handwriting, and, in the case of a document executed or attested, that it was duly executed and attested by the persons by whom it purports to be executed and attested." Explanation.—Documents are said to be in proper custody if they are in the place in which, and under the care of the person with whom, they would naturally be; but no custody is improper if it is proved to have had a legitimate origin, or if the circumstances of the particular case are such as to render such an origin probable. tc "Explanation.—Documents are said to be in proper custody if they are in the place in which, and under the care of the person with whom, they would naturally be; but no custody is improper if it is proved to have had a legitimate origin, or if the circumstances of the particular case are such as to render such an origin probable." This Explanation applies also to section 81. tc "This Explanation applies also to section 81." Illustrations
(a) A has been in possession of landed property for a long time. He produces from his custody deeds relating to the land showing his titles to it. The custody is proper.
(b) A produces deeds relating to landed property of which he is the mortgagee. The mortgagor is in possession. The custody is proper.
(c) A, a connection of B, produces deeds relating to lands in B’s possession, which were deposited with him by B for safe custody. The custody is proper. STATE AMENDMENTS Uttar Pradesh.—(a) Renumber section 90 as sub-section (1) thereof;
(b) in sub-section (1) as so renumbered, for the words “thirty years”, substitute the words “twenty years”;
(c) after sub-section (1) as so renumbered, insert the following sub-section, namely:— “(2) Where any such document as is referred to in sub-section (1) was registered in accordance with the law relating to registration of documents and a duly certified copy thereof is produced, the court may presume that the signature and every other part of such document which purports to be in the handwriting of any particular person, it is that person's handwriting, and in the case of a document executed or attested, that it was duly executed and attested by the person by whom it purports to have been executed or attested”.
(d) After section 90, insert the following section, namely:— “90A. (1) Where any registered document or a duly certified copy thereof or any certified copy of a document which is part of the record of a Court of Justice, is produced from any custody which the Court in the particular case considers proper, the Court may presume that the original was executed by the person by whom it purports to have been executed.
(2) This presumption shall not be made in respect of any document which is the basis of a suit or of defence or is relied upon in the plaint or written statement.” The Explanation to sub-section (1) of section 90 will also apply to this section; [Vide Uttar Pradesh Act 24 of 1954, sec. 2 and Sch. (w.e.f. 30-11-1954).] COMMENTS tc "COMMENTS" Presumption Assuming that the document is more than thirty years old and comes from proper custody, there would be no presumption that contents of the same are true; Mohinuddin v. President, Municipal Committee, Khargone, AIR 1993 MP 5. tc "Assuming that the document is more than thirty years old and comes from proper custody, there would be no presumption that contents of the same are true; Mohinuddin v. President, Municipal Committee, Khargone, AIR 1993 MP 5."

90A. Presumption as to electronic documents five years old.—

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Sri.  Vinay Yadav
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