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Showing posts with label Hardwares. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Hardwares. Show all posts

Friday, April 25, 2014

Touch Ring Mouse with all mouse functions with ease

ThumbTrack is an ergonomic touch ring-mouse controlled by the tip of your thumb. Perform all mouse functions with ease, eliminating the risk of pain or injury to your hand and wrist.

Relax while you work

Work should not be stressful. 

ThumbTrack enables you to choose the most comfortable body posture while working on your computer, allowing the muscles of your hand, arm and shoulder to relax. 

Be free of pain and injury.

Technology is supposed to make life easier, not injure you or cause you pain. 

Long-term use of a traditional mouse can cause compression of a nerve in the wrist and elbow which induces a tingling or even painful sensation near the fingers and other areas of the hand and wrist. 

Free yourself from the pain and discomfort of repetitive strain injuries in the hand, wrist and arm with ThumbTrack. 

Maximize Productivity.

Time is precious. 

Maximize productivity by reducing fatigue and discomfort while eliminating time spent toggling between keyboard and mouse with ThumbTrack™.

Easy operation

ThumbTrack does everything a traditional mouse does (except cause you pain). 

Switch On - Press the center button/tracking area for 3 seconds
Navigate - Gently slide your thumb over the main tracking area
Select - 2 touch sensitive buttons and 1 additional button
Scroll - Capacitive Touch-Scrolling for vertical navigation
Switch Off - Press the center button/tracking area for 3 seconds

In the box

1 x ThumbTrack™
1 x USB Dongle Wireless Receiver
1 x USB-to-ThumbTrack™ Charging Cable
2 x self-adhesive liners / padding for re-sizing
1 x User Guide

Thanks And Source:

Sunday, March 31, 2013


This is a common question when have been asked about several times by many people. Every body wants to know that what is the difference between a LCD and TFT. So i figured out, i should answer this question for anyone who has doubts.

LCD stands for Liquid Crystal Display... and 
TFT stands for Thin Film Transistor.

TFT is not really different from LCD. It comes from the family of LCD technology. We can say that it is a modern version of the LCD Technology. A TFT provide a well improved image quality. 
There are two typs of display quality. 1st one is Matty and 2nd is Grossy. Matty display is called LCD and Grossy display is called as TFT. LCD and TFT consumes less power energy as compared to CRT (Cathode ray tube).
Now a days TFT has been used for mobile phone devices, projectors, nevigation systems as well as TVs and computer monitors.

Courtesy :

Friday, April 20, 2012

How does a wireless mouse work when even it is not connected to any other devices?

How does a wireless mouse work when even it is not connected to any other devices?

In the wireless mouse the information from the mouse to the CPU and back are exchanged through radio signals
A mouse is a very important peripheral device in a computer which is used to move the cursor on the computer screen. It has several other buttons which are used to highlight a part of text, images or other information, to scroll pages, to click and open files, folders etc.

In case of a wired mouse, the information from the mouse to the CPU and back are transmitted through a pair of wires. In case of a wireless mouse, these information are exchanged through radio signals.

To support this arrangement, there is a radio transmitter in the mouse and a corresponding receiver in the computer.

The radio frequency receiver receives the radio frequency signals, decodes them, and then sends these signals directly to the computer as normal. RF receivers usually come as built in components that connect to the mouse input. In some cases a separate card is installed in the computers.

Most wireless mice have integrated receivers that plug into a computer's peripheral input and are very small in size. Wireless mice mainly use radio frequencies at 2.4 gigahertz and at these frequencies a mouse can transfer data at very quick speed. Also there is very little or no interference in a work or home environment.
They also have a good range of the order of 100 feet or so. Another technology that is used in wireless mice is Bluetooth RF technology. It uses 2.4 gigahertz frequencies. Bluetooth also has a decent range, usually about 20- 30 feet.

Former Member, Engineering, Railway Board
Indian Railways
Gr Noida, Uttar Pradesh

Courtesy : thehindu dtd 18/04/2012

Saturday, March 10, 2012

What is MAC Address

A Media Access Control address (MAC address) is a unique identifier assigned to network interfaces for communications on the physical network segment. MAC addresses are used for numerous network technologies and most IEEE 802 network technologies, including Ethernet. Logically, MAC addresses are used in the Media Access Control protocol sub-layer of the OSI reference model.
MAC addresses are most often assigned by the manufacturer of a Network Interface Card (NIC) and are stored in its hardware, the card's read-only memory, or some other firmware mechanism. If assigned by the manufacturer, a MAC address usually encodes the manufacturer's registered identification number and may be referred to as the burned-in address. It may also be known as an Ethernet hardware address (EHA), hardware address or physical address. A network node may have multiple NICs and will then have one unique MAC address per NIC.

Method 1
Click on Start>>Run>>CMD>>Ipconfig/all

A mac address contains 6 pairs of digits which is hexadecimal digits,The first three pairs of digits in the MAC address are called the OUI (Organizational Unique Identifier), which identifies the company that manufactured or sold the device. For example, a MAC address that begins with 00:1F:33 denotes a Netgear product. The last three pairs of digits are specific to the device and can be more or less considered a serial number of sorts. Together, the two parts of the MAC address form an ID that's unique to a particular device.

Method 2
This method applicable only if you connected to a network

Open Network connection

Select your Local Area Connection and right-click, select "Status".

In "Support" tab, click "Details".

Your MAC Address is the "Physical Address" listed in Network Connection Details.


if u are using windows Xp start>>run>>getmac

Thursday, March 01, 2012


 How to correctly assemble a CAT-5 cable to RJ45 connectors for regular network cables as well as crossover cables.
The CAT-5  is a standard cable which has four twisted pairs of colours. It is easy to crimp a RJ45 connector to CAT-5 cable and make it into a straight cable or cross the cable as required. To make a straight cable, the ends must be crimped in the same way at each end. When making a crossover cable, some wires of certain colours have to be reversed. 

CAT-5 cable is usually divided into 4 twisted pairs of colours:

Orange / orange-white
Green / green-white
Blue / white and blue
Brown / brown-white

Straight Cable Colour Code

To make a straight cable, the tips must be crimped typically the same way ateach end by respecting the twisted pair size.

In general, the colour code used is:

1) orange-white
2) orange
3) green-white
4) Blue
5) blue-white
6) Green
7) brown-white
8) brown

Crossover Cable Colour Code

For a crossover cable, swap 1 with 3, and 2 with 6, in the list above. This gives:

1) green-white
2) green
3) orange and white
4) Blue
5) blue-white
6) orange
7) brown-white
8) brown

Standard EIA / TIA 568 (A &B) Colour Code

Straight cable

1) white-green / white-green
2) green / green
3) white-orange / white-orange
4) Blue / blue
5) white-blue / white-blue
6) Orange / orange
7) white-brown / white-brown
8) brown / brown

Crossover cable 10/100baseT Colour Code

1) white-green / white-orange
2) Green / orange
3) white-orange / white-green
4) Blue / blue
5) white-blue / white-blue
6) Orange / green
7) white-brown / white-brown
8) brown / brown

Complete crossover cable or crossgigabit Colour Code

On Gbic 1000BaseT eg

1) white-green / white-orange
2) Green / orange
3) white-orange / white-green
4) Blue / white-brown
5) white-blue / brown
6) Orange / green
7) white-brown / blue
8) Brown / white-blue


Many Gigabits (10/100/1000 multi speed) are auto MDI / MDIX and automatically adapt to the type of cable connected.

Courtesy : Foreign Post Office Mumbai


Offline UPS

Offline UPS supply grid power to electrical and electronic devices during normal power supply. It switches to battery power only during power failures and other power problems. As the grid power is bypassed to the load during normal power supply, it is known as Offline UPS. As the UPS is used only during power problems it is also known as Standby UPS. Offline UPS is also spelled as Off-Line UPS or Off Line UPS.
Apart from bypassing power to the load, Offline UPS also 

charges the connected batteries during normal power supply. The bypassing of power results in exposing the load to electrical noises and surges. Therefore, they are not recommended for very sensitive and critical electronic devices. During power failures and other power problems, they switch from grid power to battery power fast enough to prevent computers from rebooting. The switch over time is usually between 2 to 20ms.

Online UPS

Online UPS supply power to electrical and electronic devices from batteries all the time. The UPS first converts grid power to charge the batteries and then discharges the batteries to power the load. As the battery power is supplied to the load at all times, it is known as Online UPS. The grid power is converted from (Alternating Current) AC to DC (Direct Current) to charge the battery and the battery power is converted from DC to AC to power the load. Therefore online UPS is also known as Double Conversion UPS.
As Online UPS always provides power from the battery, the load always gets clean power regardless of any power problems. Therefore, Online UPS is recommended for sensitive and critical electronic devices. Online UPS provide a layer of insulation or electric firewall. Any change in the input voltage or frequency does not affect the output voltage and frequency. Therefore, the load is shielded from all power problems.

Courtesy :

Monday, December 26, 2011

Basic Input Output System (BIOS)

The BIOS is a special software usually stored on a Flash memory chip on the motherboard. It is used by the microprocessor (processor) to get the computer system started after it is turned on. It also manages data flow between the computer's operating system and attached devices such as the hard disk, video adapter, keyboard, mouse, printer etc. When BIOS boots up (starts up) the computer, it first determines whether all of the attachments are in place and operational and then it loads the operating system (or key parts of it) into the computer's random access memory (RAM) from hard disk or diskette drive.

The BIOS uses CMOS (Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor) technology to save any changes made to the computer's settings. A small lithium or Ni-Cad cell, installed on the motherboard, supplies power to keep the data for years. To enter the CMOS Setup for altering custom settings of a computer, a certain key during the initial start up sequence is required to be pressed. Most systems use "Del," or "F1," keys to enter CMOS setup.
On entering CMOS setup, a text menu screen, the contents of which are different for different BIOS manufacturers, is displayed. The menu screen provides links for opening pages for changing various BIOS settings of the computer. These menus enable change of the following
  • System Time/Date
  • Drive Configuration
  • Boot Sequence - setting the order of boot devices;
  • Plug and Play;
  • Integrated peripherals;
  • Advanced chipset features;
  • Setting password for computer access;
  • Power Management etc.
The changes to CMOS setup must be made very carefully. Incorrect settings may stop the computer from booting.

Sunday, October 02, 2011

Computer Trouble Shooting Tips

01. There is no power light, and you cannot hear any cooling fan.
--> Check SMPS power, main power connection, and check connection on Motherboard from SMPS, check front panel connections.

02. There is no power light, but you hear the cooling fan running.
--> Check front panel connections.

03. The power light is on, but there is no apparent system activity.
-->Problem in Power good signal, video card, RAM slots.

04. The power light is on, but you hear two or more beeps.
--> CMOS checkup failure, RAM speed mismatch, RAM not inserted in its slot properly.

05. The power light is on, but the system hangs during initialization.
--> Check hardware settings, cables and bus.

06. You see no drive light activity.
--> Check power connection to that drive, front panel connections.

07. You see a message indicating ‘CMOS setup problem’.
--> Indicates CMOS memory has been failed so change CMOS battery.

08. The drive light remains on continuously.
--> Lens or head problem which indicates that Hard disk is in a bad condition.

09. You see normal system activity, but there is no video.
--> Check for monitor cable connection, monitor problem.

10. System fails to recognize the newly installed devices.
--> Check Power supply, cable connection, port, hardware. Enable settings in bios.

11. The system fails to boot, freezes during booting, or freezes during operation
for no apparent reasons.
-->problem in RAM, cache memory.

12. One or more applications fails to function as expected after an upgrade.
--> Check for hardware compatibility list for the newly installed software.

13. Windows 98/Me will not boot, and disk check reports bad clusters that it cannot repair.
--> Perform high level formatting, zerofill.

14. During the windows boot, you get an “Invalid system disk” error.
--> Operating system failure, invalid BOOT.INI file, bad MBR.

15. Windows 98/Me will not install on a compressed drive.
--> 98 doesn’t support NTFS to install OS.

16. BIOS ROM checksum error—system halted.
--> Restore BIOS settings, set the jumpers, and check the battery voltage and change it if necessary.

17. C: or D: drive error.
--> Check MBR, Try repartitioning, Adjust cable, Run disk check to remove bad sectors. If the error still persists, format.

18. "Cache memory bad, don’t enable cache" error
--> Change processor.

19. "CMOS battery failed" error
--> Change CMOS (complimentary metal oxide semiconductor) battery.

20. "CMOS checksum error-defaults loaded" error
--> Check jumpers.

21. CMOS memory size mismatch.
--> Change CMOS battery.

22. CPU at “nnn” error
--> Cache memory fails.

23. DMA (or DMA#1 or DMA#2) error.
--> North Bridge fail, disable DMA controller

24. Hard disk configuration error.
--> Setup BIOS as auto detect.

25. Hard disk failure.
--> Cable, auto detect, check for BIOS settings

26. Insert bootable media.
--> Check O.S on hard drive, change boot priority.

27. Keyboard controller failure.
--> Change keyboard.

28. Primary input device not found.
--> Keyboard not connected.

29. Disk cannot be read.
--> Mainly Motor problem or lens problem. Better check out all the devices in that Hard drive

30. The disk does not turn.
--> Spindle motor problem, so check its mechanism and replace if necessary.

31. The computer locks up while reading a CD/DVD.
--> CD/DVD problem, laser beam intensity problem and cable connection.

32. You receive a “Buffer Underrun” error when you are writing in CD-R mode.
--> Increase buffer size.

33. You receive an “invalid media” error when trying to boot from the CD.
--> That is not a bootable disk.

34. The system boots from the hard drive even though there is a bootable disk in the drive.
--> Check out setup BIOS and set first boot device to CD drive or floppy where you have inserted bootable disk.

35. When copying large files, the copy problem is eventually interrupted with a “blue screen” error.
--> RAM problem.

36. You see drive activity, but the computer will not boot from the hard drive.
--> Cable problem, bad sectors on tracks so try disk check and scandisk.

37. Your IDE drive spins up when power is applied, then rapidly spins down again.
--> Required wattage is not available from SMPS (Switch Mode Power Supply)

38. You see an “Error reading from C:” error message.
--> File system or file allocation table (FAT) error so better to format, OS not loaded properly so try to repair.

39. You see "Disk Boot Failure", "non-system disk", or "No ROM Basic- SYSTEM HALTED" error message.
--> General checkup, cable connections, bad sectors, insert bootable disk and change boot priority.

40. You find two keyboards listed in the Windows Device Manager.
--> When USB keyboard is connected it will show PS/2 also connected.

41. Your laptop doesn’t detect a PS/2 keyboard.
--> Change IRQ settings.

42. You are encountering a memory error with HIMEM.SYS under DOS.
--> Copy HIMEM.SYS from boot CD using command "extract" in base folder.

43. USB pointing device do not work in safe mode.
--> While in safe mode we will not get any other external devices

44. The modem will not pick up the phone line.
--> Busy, it’s already in use.

45. Secondary IDE controller resource conflict.
--> Set IRQ in auto.

46. You receive an "erase chip failure" when trying to run a flash loader.
--> Write protect change to "disable" in integrated peripheral

47. After installing new BIOS, the system now asks for a password.
--> Clear the CMOS by jumpers and try again

48. Power management features are not available.
--> Check in BIOS setup.

49. PnP support is not available, or PnP devices don’t function properly.
--> Your BIOS doesn’t support PnP feature

50. The A: drive appears in My Computer even though no drive is installed.
--> Change BIOS settings for floppy from enabled or disabled

Tuesday, September 13, 2011

Troubleshooting A Printer

-If you own a printer that sees a lot of action you most likely have had problems with it. Most of the troubleshooting in a printer is the software of the settings of the printer in your software. The second culprit is just dirt and grime. This is called preventive maintenance for the most part. People simply do not clean there work space nor there printers.

Laser Printers
-Laser printers are the worst for getting nasty and causing all kinds of problems in printing. The first thing you should look into is cleaning the printer. Using a paint brush (not a used one) and some compressed air and you are in business. A Q-tip here and there is also a good idea.

-The main reason a laser printer will act up is the toner itself. The toner is loaded with iron oxide making it somewhat dirty to begin with and abrasive. The static charges that are involved in laser printing can attract dust on top of all the other problems. Clean your printer!

-Also a note about cleaning the printer is never use liquid or a liquid solvent when cleaning. You are running a risk of making things worse. Use a clean paint brush and Q-tips.

Ink Jet

-Your most typical problems with the inkjet printer isn't so different from the laser. You will also get a build up of dirt, hair, paper, and any other act of god on the inside. Cleaning a ink jetprinter is a breeze and should be done with compressed air.

Getting Out Easy

-Here are some easy outs when diagnosing the printer and what the problem is.
1. Check the printer cable first off.
2. Check power. This sounds stupid but it happens.
3. Check and make sure printer is online.
4. Check paper, toner, ink. These are common to go out and need replacement.
5. Try a print test page. There may be a button on the printer itself that will do a test page for you. If the page prints out you know that the problem isn't the printer itself.
6. Look at your printer settings. Make sure you are sending to the proper printer. Is the right one installed?
7. Inspect any pass through device such as parallel switchers. Inspect the cable itself. I have bought new printer cables that were faulty.
Not So Easy Outs

-Well now you have to get to the nitty gritty.

-We want to see first off if the printer is properly installed. Follow the steps below.
1. Go to control panel in windows and select Printers.
2. Select your printer and then click file, properties.
3. Choose Details
4. Look and see if the printer is pointed towards LPT1 port. If not then change it.
-Now if that isn't the problem and the printer is pointing towards the LPT1 port we need to look at Windows Device Manager.
1. Go to control panel windows and select Systems.
2. Select Device Manager Tab.
3. Look down the list and sport ports. Double click.
4. Check for any exclamation points or a question mark. If this exist you may have a conflict.
5. If so double click the port with the problem and choose resources tab.
6. Under the resources tab look at the last box. Does it say "conflicts"?
7. If a conflict exist simply uncheck "automatic settings" and click "Change settings"
8. You can now change the IRQ. If unsure which to try then click one at a time and see if it will show a conflict on the return dialog box.
-If you changed an IRQ setting you will need to go into the BIOS and change this also.
1. Reboot Computer, hit delete key or corresponding setup key before windows starts.
2. Look for peripheral settings and change the settings for the LPT1 port to what you changed in the windows device manager.
-Hope that helped.